Point of Entry to Point of Use Prevention

Treat the conditions, not just symptoms.

With a more thorough understanding of the underlying conditions that put your facility at risk, you can prescribe an effective water management program. Watts provides a broad range of solutions to choose from: for use at the points of entry (POE), points of use (POU) and the points of condition within. Watts provides a comprehensive solution set for your water management plan, including Legionella and scalding mitigation throughout your water system. To properly address the specific needs of your facility you will want to consult with a specialist.


Water Temperature Control

The optimal temperature for legionella to thrive is between 77°F (25°C) and 113°F (45°C). Temperatures above 140°F (60°C) are used to kill legionella bacteria.

Domestic Hot Water

The risk of Legionella growth in domestic hot water can be mitigated by elevating the water to high temperatures or by ensuring it remains in a constant state of flow. Tankless water heaters generate domestic hot water using advanced flow control to keep water constantly moving thereby severely reducing any chance of bacterial growth. Tank water heaters generate domestic hot water and store it at 140°F, creating an inhospitable environment for Legionella. Both options make it easy for your facility to comply with ASHRAE Guideline 12-2000 and ASHRAE Standard 188-2015.

AERCO Innovation high-efficiency water heaters deliver precisely controlled instantaneous hot water without storage. More info

PVI Conquest water heaters provide 140° F temperature water with up to 97% thermal efficiency. More info


Heating water daily to 140°F is one of the most effective and reliable control measures for dealing with Legionella; however, it is too hot for people. On average, water above 106°F can cause pain in humans, and water at 140°F can cause third degree burns in a matter of seconds. To avoid scalding and related injuries, plumbing codes limit the maximum temperature exiting a fixture to 120°F, with the expectation that people can readily control the mix of cold and hot water at the faucet to meet their needs.

The solution to the competing set of interests in setting acceptable water temperature ranges is provided by tempering valves or mixing valves that blend hot water (generated and stored at temperatures high enough to kill bacteria) with cold water in a controlled manner. This approach ensures constant, safe outlet temperatures while minimizing the occurrences of both scalding and Legionella.

System Water Temperatures

The Powers IntelliStation® family offers digital mixing solutions for domestic hot water in commercial and institutional facilities. Mixing allows for storage at a high temperature and distribution at a lower, safe temperature. This improves safety for point-of-use fixtures that do not have scald prevention features. The IntelliStation family delivers water within ±2°F of setpoint, includes a feature for hyper-heat sanitation, and can be integrated with a building automation system (BAS) to allow facilities managers to remotely monitor and control water temperatures.

Learn more about the IntelliStation family

Point-of-Use Temperatures

Powers point-of-use fixtures include internal mixing valves that temper the water to a safe temperature for use.

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SmartStream® UV systems

Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems are highly effective at providing protection against microbiological contamination in water, including Legionella. Making sure the lamp strength is adequate to kill Legionella should be your top priority when selecting a UV solution. Also take measures to reduce sediment in the water to increase the efficacy of UV through the use proper filtration and anti-scale equipment, such as the Watts Big Bubba® non-metallic filter housings and Watts OneFlow® anti-scale system.

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Copper-Silver Ionization

According to Janet Stout, Special Pathogens Lab, “Copper-silver ionization is a disinfection method that is used to eradicate Legionella from hot water recirculating systems. Disinfection with ionization occurs when the positively charged copper and silver ions released from the ionization system bind to the negatively charged cell wall of Legionella causing cell death.” Copper-silver ionization is known to be very effective in Legionella control; however, this solution has higher capital and maintenance costs than other methods. Most states require a certification in order to work with this solution.

Chemical Treatment

Chlorine is proven to be very effective in reducing the risk of Legionella. Most often it is injected after the municipal water supply has entered a building in the mechanical room. Other chemicals may be used instead of chlorine, but chlorine is the most widely accepted choice by the industry. Chlorine and other chemicals can prove to be health risks if levels are outside of accepted parameters, however. In addition, chlorine is very corrosive to equipment and piping in the water management system and has the potential to cause pinhole leaks.

Filtration and Scale Reduction

Water filtration can improve a water systems’ Legionella risk-reducing ability by preventing build-up of sediment and scale, upon which bacteria thrive. In addition, filtration helps maintain the operating efficiencies of boiler, hot water heater and UV systems. Hard water minerals can cause scale deposits inside pipes, valves and other system components.

OneFlow® Anti-Scale Systems

Template Assisted Crystallization (TAC) is an environmentally friendly solution for preventing scale build-up. OneFlow TAC systems require no salt, chemicals or electricity for operation while requiring a fraction of the floor space used by softener systems and salt.

OneFlow Anti-Scale Systems reduce scale and maintain operating efficiency of boiler and hot water heater systems.

More info

Big Bubba High Volume Filtration Systems

Big Bubba makes it easy to access filtration cartridges in high volume distribution systems to help you ensure filtration is consistent. More info

Watts Skid Packaged Systems

Engineered solution to match facility water treatment requirements. Components can include filtration, reverse osmosis, scale reduction, and UV treatment. Contact your local rep to discuss requirements

Piping and Drainage

Blucher Drainage

BLÜCHER HygienicPro® Piping and Drainage are constructed of smooth stainless steel so they do not harbor bacteria.

  • No corners or inside cavities to harbor bacterial growth
  • Smooth stainless steel construction for efficient flow and easy cleaning
  • Resistant to a wide range of cleaning chemicals
  • Unaffected by high-temperature cleaning or steam disinfection
  • Durable – designed to last for the lifetime of the building

Visit Blucherpipe.com to learn more
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Backflow Prevention

Backflow is the reverse flow of contaminated or undesirable substance into the potable water supply. Installing a backflow preventer can protect the water supply from this very serious type of situation.

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